Lipid profile and nutritional intake in children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes improve after a structured dietician training to a Mediterranean-style diet
F. Cadario1,2, F. Prodam1,3, S. Pasqualicchio1, S. Bellone1, I. Bonsignori1, I. Demarchi1, A. Monzani1, and G. Bona1,2
1Division of Pediatrics, Department of Health Sciences; 2Interdisciplinary Research Center of Autoimmune Diseases (IRCAD); 3Division of Endocrinology, Department of Translational Medicine, University of Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy

Aim: To evaluate if nutritional intakes and lipid profile fulfill international guidelines and recommendations before and after a structured dietician training to a Mediterranean-style diet in an Italian pediatric population with Type 1 diabetes. Methods: A 6-month prospective cohort study. Baseline and after-intervention nutritional intakes, lipid profile, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and clinical parameters of 96 children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes were assessed. A comparative computerized system which was approved and validated by the Italian Diabetologist Association was used to define the amounts of nutrients. Results: At baseline mean daily dietary intakes of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids were respectively (mean±SEM) 51.8±0.5, 15.9±0.2, 33.8±0.6%, with a contribution of cholesterol of 248.7±12.5 mg/day. Fiber assumption was 18.0±0.4 g/day. The 64.5% and 29.1% (p<0.0001) of subjects had at least one lipid parameter higher than 75th and 95th percentiles, respectively, of selected cut points (American Diabetes Association guidelines for total and LDL-cholesterol and American Academy of Pediatrics standards for HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides). Six months after the dietician intervention, dietary lipids and cholesterol decreased (p<0.0001) while fibers (p<0.0001) increased. LDL-cholesterol, non-HDLcholesterol, and total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratios significantly decreased (p<0.001) with a reduction of rate of subjects with at least one pathological lipid parameter (p<0.01) independently by weight and glucose control. Conclusions: Italian pediatric subjects with Type 1 diabetes present a balanced diet with exception of lipids intake and a suboptimal lipid profile. A structured dietician training to a Mediterranean-style diet improves the quality of nutrient intakes being followed by a reduction of LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol, and total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratios. (J. Endocrinol. Invest. 35: 160-168, 2012) ©2012, Editrice Kurtis

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